The following lists link to engineering articles, papers and product reviews that I have written. These are categorised as guides, technical articles, tests and product briefs. Some may appear in more than one category. Click the title to open. Articles that are now out of date or contain information no longer relevant are still available in the archive section at the end.


Guides are short papers written in generally lay terms and which are intended to be understood by non-technical people.

Date Title Description
19 April 2016 The true costs of owning a car from new Adding up the costs of owning a small new car for a few years. It is likely more than you thought.
3 July 2015 You thought there were a lot of ads... Measurements of how much ad time on Freeview
27 Oct 2014 So you want to set up a LPFM station in New Zealand? A guide to setting up a low power FM (LPFM) station in New Zealand
5 Oct 2013 Radio-microphones and the digital dividend A short discussion document on how radio-microphones have been affected by the digital dividend and by the switch to digital TV
26 Nov 2012 How much hot water does a shower use? The flow of a typical mains pressure shower is measured and the costs of running the shower are calculated.Some guidelines to keep costs down.
28 June 2010 What it takes to get high definition ( pdf) An intro to what it takes to get HD pictures from current broadcast TV in New Zealand. (pdf)


Technical articles are of a more technical nature and require some understanding of radio/TV, electrical or electronics engineering. Lay persons will nonetheless gain at least an overview of the topic and may find some value in reading the article.

Date Title Description
16 Sept 2016 The Axino mini-FM transmitter One way to get a watt
1 February 2016 Using 433MHz ASK transmitter/receiver as control link Lab experiments using 433MHz link with Holtek button encoder/decoders
8 December 2015 An improved mini-oven temperature controller Replacing the dodgy simmerstat in a benchtop oven
27 November 2015 Revisiting audio loudness on Freeview Review of loudness on Freeview (N.Z) in 2015
6 July 2015 Replacing incandescent downlights with LED Details, prices, payback period.
4 July 2015 Appliance power meter A design for an appliance power meter
14 October 2013 AC auto-boost unit A design for an automatic AC boost unit
25 September 2013 Re-purpose the old VHF TV antenna for FM Convert your old TV antenna to FM
8 September 2013 THD+N measurement Defending the usefulness of THD+N measurements
20 February 2013 Building a microphone preamplifier Design and schematics for a microphone preamplifier used for audio measurements
2 February 2013 Loudness of N.Z Freeview stations Measurements of sound loudness for N.Z Freeview stations
5 September 2012 Vehicle Noise Discussion around vehicle noise plus measurement techniques including a roadside recording
23 December 2011 Introduction to DVB-T2 and SKY Igloo SKY and TVNZ will commence their 'IGLOO' service in 2012 using the latest DVB-T2 standard. "Igloo" closed in 2017 however the DVB-T2 technology is current and many networks around the world are converting from plain DVB-T.
23 November 2011 Motels hotels and TV analogue switch-off Options for motels and hotels for when analogue TV is turned off
14 August 2011 Setup dish with spectrum analyser A technical brief describing how to set up a satellite dish using a spectrum analyser
15 April 2011 Power quality of small appliances Some test results and discussion of the mains harmonics created in small appliances
3 January 2011 Radiation from flat panel TV's Short article about radiation fields from modern flat panel TV's compared to the old CRT style sets.
16 August 2010 Digital TV - how DVB-T works Why DVBT uses less spectrum resource than analogue TV and just how does it work anyway
9 August 2010 Bandwidth required for broadcast FM Some performance issues that determine FM stereo quality.
28 July 2010 TV viewing distance guidelines (pdf) Discusses the various guidelines and recommendations for best distance to sit from your screen
18 July 2010 Installing a satellite dish for Optus D1 and D2 My experience of installing a satellite dish for Freeview plus other services from Optus D1 and D2.
10 May 2010 Lip sync issues with flat screen TV's The problem of the sound arriving before the picture
25 Mar 2010 Power consumption table Measured power use and annual costs for selected appliances.
2 Oct 2009 Ads on TV are louder than programmes Yes it has always been true. This article proves it.
28 Sept 2009 The myth of loudspeaker bi-wiring Discussion of bi-wiring and demonstration of minimal imedance differences
22 Sept 2009 More CFL experiments Tests of light output and flicker. (In response to D.Helmore)
22 June 2009 Update to CFL article Further thoughts about CFL's following Consumer NZ test
22 June 2009 Penultimate Audio Project Details on my Leach amplifiers and bi-amplified stereo speakers project. Updated Sept 2010.
5 April 2009 CFL Article Thoughts on CFL's and potential national power savings by domestic use of compact fluorescent lamps


As the name implies, this list describes engineering tests performed by Axino-tech.

Date Title Description
3 July 2017 The 'Realistic' SA150 amplifier A few details about this nano-stereo amp from the 1990's era
2 July 2017 A tale of three vacuum cleaners Important measurements for domestic vacuum cleaners
20 Apr 2017 Light flicker from LED lighting Looking at the IEEE1789-2015 standard
20 Nov 2012 Loudness tests of Russell Hobbs kettles Is the Whisper model really any quieter?
16 Nov 2012 Installing a Superlux SD125F CFL downlight Comparing light output and aesthetics to the old incandescent downlight
3 June 2012 Replacing the outdoor unit of a house alarm Rust never sleeps. Almost as true as death and taxes.
21 May 2012 How good are incandescent recessed downlights Measurements of light from ordinary recessed incandescent downlights
24 March 2012 Speed Tests of some USB drives Speed tests of some USB 2.0 drives to assess suitability for video recording
8 August 2013 Tests of TV and satellite RF components Measured performance of selected TV and satellite hardware components used in domestic and commercial installations.
16 November 2011 Tests of the new LED lamps Test report on the new LED globes available as replacements for incandescent lamps. Updated Dec 2012.
15 April 2011 Power quality of small appliances Some test results and discussion of the mains harmonics created in small appliances
25 Mar 2010 Power consumption table Measured power use and annual costs for selected appliances.
7 Sept 2009 HDMI cables: No need to pay exorbitant prices Tests performed on HDMI cables which show even cheap generics work at over 20 metres


This section contains some product reviews performed by Axino-tech.

Date Title Description
4 Aug 2016 Jaycar XC4438 module assessment Some weaknesses in design
27 Nov 2015 Jaycar XC4514 module problem The step-up voltage converter that wasn't.
5 Jan 2015 Syba CM119 USB to stereo adaptor A brief look at performance of this adaptor.
4 Jan 2015 D2A digital audio to stereo converter A brief look at what it took to make this unit work.
7 Sept 2012 Powerware PW5115 UPS Short summary and some tests of this Eaton UPS...UPDATED MAR 2017
21 June 2012 Retiring the old Thorn FM64A stereo Replaced with a Denon AVR-1912
17 June 2012 Faulty Jaycar headset LED magnifier LED circuit which could not have worked
16 May 2012 Update on Honda Civic operating costs Now after four years of ownership
28 April 2012 New remote control for garage door opener Coping with obselete or faulty garage remote
27 February 2012 Replacing a faulty insinkerator Experience of replacing a faulty insinkerator
6 June 2011 Vantec Culore UGT-CH100 Mini review of Vantec Culore UGT-CH100 memory card reader
31 May 2011 Uniden XDECT R055 phone Mini review of Uniden XDECT R055 cordless phone
28 March 2010 Honda Civic 1.8 auto A mini review of the 2008 Honda Civic 1.8 auto (pdf)
24 Jan 2010 Review of Heartlands Logan cedar shed I built one and it has worked out well.(pdf)
5 March 2009 The NAVMAN S200 car GPS Review of the S200 in-car GPS


Articles that are now out of date or contain information no longer relevant are here purely for historical background.

Introduction to Freeview (2010)
Re-tuning TV's for Freeview (2012)
Freeview Confusion (2011)
Analogue TV switch off (pdf) (2010)
Why change from analogue to digital TV.html (2010)